Background/Aims: Thalassemia is one of the most common hereditary disorders in Turkey. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of the beta-thalassemia trait and abnormal hemoglobins in the province of Adiyaman in Turkey. Methods: The study included 3571 high school students of both sexes; aged 12-22 (mean 16.59 +/- 1.34). After they received information about thalassemia, they were screened for beta-thalassemia and abnormal hemoglobin using complete blood count (CBC) and quantification of hemoglobin. Hemoglobin was fractionated using HPLC. Results: The beta-thalassemia trait was found in 38 students (1.06%), and abnormal hemoglobin in seven students (0.20%). Of the latter, four carried HbD Los Angeles, two HbS, and one HbE-Saskatoon. Conclusion: The prevalence of the beta-thalassemia trait and abnormal hemoglobin in the province of Adiyaman is low, compared to the rest of Turkey. Our results seem to reflect the heterogeneity of beta-thalassemia in the province of Adiyaman and may be of value for genetic counseling and premarital screening.