Differential diagnosis of the calvarial lesions is important in order to decide whether biopsy, surgical intervention, or follow-up is required for further management. In this pictorial essay on calvarial lesions, lytic or sclerotic patterns, contours of the lesions, calcifications, soft tissue components, inner and outer table localizations were evaluated with computed tomography (CT). On magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) signal characteristics and contrast enhancement of the lesion, relation to brain parenchyma and soft tissue were evaluated. CT scan is considered to be the best examination to characterize bone alterations whereas MRI depicts bone marrow abnormalities and invasion of adjacent tissues. © Turkish Society of Radiology 2007.