The aim of the present study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of deslorelin, a GnRH agonist, implants in suppressing estrus behavior and matings in a controlled ambient environment in feline queens in the presence of a tomcat. Local and utero-ovarian side effects of deslorelin implants were also investigated. The queens were housed in groups and assigned to one of three treatments: group 1 received 9.5 mg deslorelin implants (N = 14), group 2 received 5 mg megestrol acetate tablets and 9.5 mg deslorelin implants (N = 7), and group 3 were given placebo implants (N = 7). All implants were placed subcutaneously cranial to the interscapular region under xylazine hydrochloride sedation. Ovarian activity was monitored by fecal estradiol (E-2) analyses. The animals were observed daily and checked individually at three-day intervals for behavioral signs of estrus. After 18.5 mo of trial, queens were ovariohysterectomized, and ovaries and uteri were weighed and evaluated histologically. E-2 levels were significantly lower in group 1 and 2 than in group 3 with an average of 128.48 +/- 19.97 ng/g, 90.44 +/- 7.16 ng/g and 283.26 +/- 39.21 ng/g, respectively, excepting the first week of treatment. After inserting implants an initial estrus-like increase in fecal E-2 concentrations occurred in all treated queens except one female in group 2. Ovarian and uterine weights were significantly different among the groups (P < 0.01), and were lowest in groups 1 and 2. Primordial and primary follicle numbers were significantly higher in groups 1 and 2 than in group 3 (P < 0.001). Endometrial gland, antral follicle, and corpus luteum (CL) numbers were highest in group 3 (P < 0.01, 0.001, and 0.001, respectively) compared with groups 1 and 2. Deslorelin implants successfully suppressed estrus behavior and E2 secretion in queens for 18.5 mo of the study period. Further investigations are needed to demonstrate the effects of GnRH agonists on ovarian interstitial tissue. (C) 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.