The objective of this study was to pool individual studies regarding the association of blood lipid profiles with urolithiasis to carry out a systematic review and meta-analysis. We searched MEDLINE, PubMed, Embase and Cochrane Library to identify the relevant studies up to November 2017. Studies that met all inclusion criteria were chosen, and a pooled analysis of the odds ratio between urolithiasis and dyslipidemia traits was calculated. A total of 11 observational studies (seven cross-sectional, three cohort, one case-control) with a total of 282 479 participants were examined. The overall pooled analysis of eight studies showed that high triglyceride was associated with increased estimated risk of urolithiasis (odds ratio 1.287, 95% CI 1.073-1.544; P = 0.007). Estimates of the total effect size were consistent in the sensitivity analysis. No evidence of publication bias was detected. The overall pooled analysis of nine studies showed low high-density lipoprotein was weakly associated with increased estimated risk of urolithiasis (odds ratio 1.171, 95% CI 1.010-1.358; P = 0.032). The sensitivity analysis showed conflicting results. No evidence of publication bias was detected. Three studies on the association between any dyslipidemia traits and urolithiasis showed a significant association (odds ratio 1.309, 95% CI 1.202-1.425; P < 0.001). The present meta-analysis showed that patients with higher triglyceride and lower high-density lipoprotein had an increased estimated risk of urolithiasis. A triglyceride-urolithiasis association was found to be more coherent and consistent compared with the high-density lipoprotein-urolithiasis association. Although somewhat contradictory results have been found, the meta-analysis is encouraging for evaluating urolithiasis as a systemic disorder. Further well-designed prospective randomized controlled or cohort studies are necessary to better elucidate the causal association of dyslipidemia and urolithiasis.