The basic resources of microelements that are essential for human life are food materials. However, in larger or lower amounts, they may become more important and critical. They may be accumulated in biological systems and become a significant health hazard. Biochemical and physical adaptation of microorganisms are related to geophysical properties and the environmental factors in the habitat around. Therefore many research activities have been done about microelements and their effect on ecosystem. In the Republic of Azerbaijan specialized research activities have been carried out since 1950s. This study was carried out in the Kuba-Khachmas and Sheki-Zaqatala regions where endemic goiter is a critical health disease. In order to compare the effect of microelements, their level in a blank region, Apsheron peninsula, was also investigated. 160 samples of consumed food materials in the regions were collected from farms, factory and household meal and nursery schools. Iodine, fluorine, copper, cobalt, manganese, zinc and Molybdenum levels were determined for each samples. Although a large range between minimum and maximum levels for almost each microelement were observed, the results showed that the soil character in the studied areas had microelement levels below required amount for vital activities.