International Refereed Journal of Design and Architecture, 10: 202-218, Print ISSN: 2148-8142, Online ISSN: 2148-4880, sa.10, ss.202-218, 2017 (Diğer Kurumların Hakemli Dergileri)
Kent planlama ve peyzaj mimarlığı, planlama ve tasarım arasındaki boşluğu doldurmayı amaçlayan, uyum sağlayabilir süreç tabanlı planlama ve tasarım yöntemleri geliştirmek son yıllarda üzerinde sıklıkla durulan araştırma konusudur. Bu bağlamda, geleceğin kentsel peyzajlarını şekillendirecek melez disiplinler üstü ortamın tarif edilmesi önem taşımaktadır. Bu çalışmada, peyzaj şehirciliğinin eksik vaatlerini ve parametrik dönemin biçimsel kaygılarının ötesinde, sosyo-ekolojik süreçler ile ilişkilendirilmiş kentsel tasarım sentezi oluşturmak amaçlanmıştır.Bu kapsamda, peyzaj mimarlığı ve şehircilik etkileşiminin, kent ekolojisinin bilimsel birikimi ve parametrik dönemin teknolojik araçlarının rehberliğinde kentsel tasarım alanındaki etkileşimlerine tanımlama getirilmiştir. İlk olarak, günümüz kentsel mekân algısındaki değişim ve peyzaj şehirciliğinin temelleri ve mevcut uygulamaları incelenmiştir. İkinci olarak: parametrik üslubun temelleri ve şehircilik alanındaki uygulamalarına değinilmiştir. Üçüncü olarak, kentleri insan egemen karmaşık ekosistemler olarak kabul eden kent ekolojisi üzerinde durulmuştur. Son olarak, kentsel ekosistemlerdeki akışları yöneten altyapı olarak peyzaj fikrinin kentsel tasarım alanına yansımaları ve parametrik araçlarla oluşturulan ilişkisel alan tanımlanmıştır. Böylece, geleceğin kentsel mekân algısını şekillendirecek melez alana ilişkin öneriler getirilmiştir.
Anahtar Kelimeler: Peyzaj Şehirciliği, Altyapı Olarak Peyzaj, Kent Ekolojisi, Parametrik Üslup
EXTENDED ABSTRACT Aim: Improving adaptable process-based planning and design methods that aims to fill the gaps between urban planning and landscape architecture, planning and design has been frequently emphasized as a research subject over the last decade. In this context, defining the hybrid transdisciplinary field that shapes future urban landscapes is important subject. Beyond the deficient commitments of landscape urbanism and stylistic concerns of parametricism, the research aims to constitute the synthesis of urban design approaches associated with socio-ecological processes. Scope: Within the scope of the research, the interaction between landscape architecture and urbanism defined under the guidance of the scientific knowledge of urban ecology and digital technologies of parametric era. In this context, the principles of each concepts and the practices in the field of urban design have been mentioned. Method: In this research, each concept has been investigated separately and the hybrid field that comprises of their interactions have been synthesis: Firstly, the change of present urban space perception, the fundamentals of landscape urbanism and the practices in the field of urban design have been investigated. Secondly, the fundamentals of parametricism and the practices in the field of urban design have been mentioned. Thirdly, urban ecology that accepts cities as human dominated ecosystems has been emphasized. Lastly, the idea of landscape as infrastructure that conducts the flows of urban ecosystems on urban design and the relational field comprised by parametric technologies have been defined. Thus, we have given suggestions concerning the hybrid field that can form the future urban landscapes. Findings: In traditional urbanism, urban development had been consisted of solely structural component; inappropriate areas for settlements had been allocated for green areas. According to Allen (2002: 125) “landscape is not only a formal model for urbanism today, but perhaps more importantly, a model for process”. Herein, landscape has defined as time-varying model that accepts cities complex emergent ecologies, not as perspective art or beautification, greening and naturalize of cities. Landscape is a unique medium that can response to adaptation and temporal changes. According to Waldheim (2016: 15), landscape facilitates to be perceived complex ecological processes in urban context by people. As an integrating component of urban design, landscape focuses how urban space works, rather than how it is seen. In this context, “landscape as infrastructure” (Belanger, 2009: 79-95) approach has contributed to hybrid urban environment, in which urban infrastructure, human activities and ecological processes is integrated. The infrastructure with prefix of landscape, ecological or green has come into prominence in the field of landscape architecture and urban design. On the basis of landscape itself is a infrastructure that conducts urban flows, it has considered as a medium for conservation ecosystem functions and providing ecosystem services. Thus, infrastructures as integrating components in which natural and cultural processes interlace have been turn into landscape components that create identity to urban environment with their physical appearances and increase ecological literacy of citizens. The practices that emphasizes landscape as infrastructure in the field of urban design has leveraged landscape urbanism discourse. The prominent landscape architecture firms such as Field Operations, Turenscape, SWA, StossLU, Groundlab has contributed to this hybrid field with innovative design solutions and practices. The studies of Konjian Yu, founder of Turenscape (Saunders, 2012: 17-203), ground on landscape restoration and providing ecosystem services by creating living ecosystems that have the ability of change and adaptation. While he provides dramatic changes on landscape with minimum design solutions, he finds smart solutions on using the adaptation ability of local vegetation and revealing cultural heritage. By integration of human and natural processes, he provides innovative ecological infrastructure samples for water control. The power of the new hybrid and transdisciplinary field has lied behind the ability of transfer ecological processes to design. At this point, Translating the knowledge and principles, produced under the guidance of landscape urbanism and urban ecology into physical form increasingly relies on the use of parametric processes, in which a set of variables or parameters is given to a design problem (Hung vd., 2012: 14). “As a means of developing infrastructures and settlements that are more tightly entwined with complex ecologies” (Holzman ve Cantrell, 2014: 709 – 718), parametric technologies have been needed to mimic complexity and dynamic processes of urban ecosystems. Through performance based parametric simulation tools, designers can produce design solutions by using digital ecological processes and can test possible impacts and performances design solutions. “There are no single solutions to working better together in our growing constructed ecologies, no specific boundaries, no defined shapes, no set forms” (Grose, 2014: 76). Because parametric technologies facilitate to produce limitless forms and solutions in order that designers can foresee their impacts. Also parametric technologies facilitate to relate designs with the context via “design techniques capable of operating across a number of scales” (Weinstock, 2013: 33). Thus, the technologies assist to bridge between planning and design. Result: During the recent years, landscape has come into prominence as the integrative component of urban space. Urban, natural and social systems interact with energetic syntheses and change each other. On the basis of innovative discourses of landscape urbanism, urban design actors need to adopt flexible and adaptable processes that can response to demands of contemporary cities in order to overcome environmental and socio-economic problems. Therefore, the researches for improving design systems have importance rather than generating solely fixed design solutions. A large number of applications that transfer complexity of urban ecosystems by parametric technologies and scientific methods have been developed. Determining the relations that shapes urban landscape pattern will provide unique opportunities to generate new patterns and design systems. The design and planning disciplines has been on the verge of path-breaking development that will shift the perspective of urban space and design. The planning and design approach based on the relational representation of landscape pattern and process will move the relationality discourse of parametricism forward. Improving design systems from regional scale to design scale will reveal the missing link between planning and design. Focusing on interactions of urban landscape pattern and process with socio ecological processes will shape future urban environment. Key Words: Landscape Urbanism, Landscape As Infrastructure, Urban Ecology, Parametricism