We studied the intracranial portion of the vertebral artery and its branches in 11 cadaveric specimens. We evaluated the course of vessels and their dimensions (external diameter and length) as well as relationships between each of them. The vertebral artery was larger on the left side in two cases, on the right in five cases, and equal on both sides in four cases. The right and left vertebral arteries joined each other forming the basilar artery at the level of the pontomedullary junction in lour cases, 2 mm below it in one case, and 1 to 7 mm above it in six cases. We divided all branches of the intracranial vertebral artery into two groups: the medial branches and the lateral branches. Two major types of medial branches were observed the anterior spinal artery and the branches of the foramen caecum. The origin of the anterior spinal artery was located 6.5 mm (5-11 mm) proximal to vertebrobasilar junction on the right and 8.5 mm (6-17 mm) on the left. The anterior spinal artery was absent on the right in two cases and on the left in one. Branches arising from the vertebral artery to the foremen caecum were found in four brains. Lateral branches originated from the posterolateral or lateral aspect of vertebral artery. The posterior inferior cerebellar artery, the largest branch of the vertebral artery, was included in this group. Other branches were mostly located between the origin of the posterior inferior cerebellar artery and the vertebrobasilar junction. Forty-six lateral branches originating from the vertebral artery were found in 11 brains (26 on the right and 20 on the left). Lateral branches widely anastomosed with perforators from the basilar artery, posterior inferior cerebral artery, and the anterior inferior cerebellar artery.