The Pliocene Etrusk stratovolcano, located in the northeast of Lake Van (Eastern Anatolia; Turkey), is one of theimportant volcanic centres in the Eastern Anatolian collision zone. Mt. Etrusk overlies a widespread volcanic plateau, consisting of basaltic and hawaiitic lavas formed by fissure eruptions between 4.9-4.5 Ma. These basic lavas contain a phenocryst phase consisting of olivine, plagioclase and clinopyroxene. Trace element ratio diagrams imply that these basic magmas were generated from a mantle that contained a clear subduction component that is related to thesubducted sediments rather than fluids or altered oceanic crust. Results of the melting models on the basaltic plateau lavas indicate that there was a marked variation both in the mantle source mineralogy (i.e. the ratio of garnet peridotite to spinel peridotite in the source varies between 60/40% and 40/60%) and the degree of melting (i.e. F between 0.8-4%). This can be explained by a model in which magmas were generated by partial melting of both metasomatised lithospheric and deeper asthenospheric mantle sources in an extensional setting in response to the partial delamination of the lithospheric mantle of Eastern Anatolia and then mixed with each other during Pliocene times.
Central eruptions that formed the Etrusk volcano lasted similar to 600 kyr between 43-3.7 Ma during Zanclean times. Theestimated depth of the Etrusk magma chamber is similar to 9-12 km. The volcano erupted lavas with a rather narrow compositional range from latite to rhyolite, which are either transitional or mildly alkaline in character. The Etrusk lavas contain plagioclase, clino- and orthopyroxene, biotite, K-feldspar and rarely, minor amounts of olivine and amphibole in the phenocryst phase. A composite chemo-stratigraphic section of the volcano and petrological models indicate that theevolved lavas of the Etrusk volcano differentiated from a parental magma composition, which is similar to that of themost primitive plateau basalt lavas underlying the volcano, via the AFC process, and experienced at least two major magma replenishment episodes at 4.1 Ma and 3.8 Ma during the magma chamber evolution.