Donkey milk kefir induces apoptosis and suppresses proliferation of Ehrlich ascites carcinoma by decreasing iNOS in mice

Esener O. B. B. , Balkan B. M. , Armutak E. İ. , Uvez A. , Yildiz G., Hafizoglu M., ...Daha Fazla

BIOTECHNIC & HISTOCHEMISTRY, cilt.93, ss.424-431, 2018 (SCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi) identifier identifier identifier

  • Cilt numarası: 93 Konu: 6
  • Basım Tarihi: 2018
  • Doi Numarası: 10.1080/10520295.2018.1448112
  • Sayfa Sayıları: ss.424-431


Donkey milk and donkey milk kefir exhibit antiproliferative, antimutagenic and antibacterial effects. We investigated the effects of donkey milk and donkey milk kefir on oxidative stress, apoptosis and proliferation in Ehrlich ascites carcinoma (EAC) in mice. Thirty-four adult male Swiss albino mice were divided into four groups as follows: group 1, administered 0.5ml water; group 2, administered 0.5ml water + EAC cells; group 3, administered 0.5ml donkey milk + EAC cells; group 4, administered 0.5ml donkey milk kefir + EAC cells. We introduced 2.5 x 10(6) EAC cells into each animal by subcutaneous injection. Tap water, donkey milk and donkey milk kefir were administered by gavage for 10days. Animals were sacrificed on day 11. After measuring the short and long diameters of the tumors, tissues were processed for histology. To determine oxidative stress, cell death and proliferation iNOS and eNOS, active caspase-3 and proliferating cell nuclear antigen were assessed using immunohistochemistry. A TUNEL assay also was used to detect apoptosis. Tumor volume decreased in the donkey milk kefir group compared to the control and donkey milk groups. Tumor volume increased in the donkey milk group compared to the control group. Proliferating cell nuclear antigen levels were higher in the donkey milk kefir group compared to the control and donkey milk groups. The number of apoptotic cells was less in the donkey milk group, compared to the control, whereas it was highest in the donkey milk kefir group. Donkey milk administration increased eNOS levels and decreased iNOS levels, compared to the control group. In the donkey milk kefir group, iNOS levels were significantly lower than those of the control and donkey milk groups, while eNOS levels were similar to the control group. Donkey milk kefir induced apoptosis, suppressed proliferation and decreased co-expression of iNOS and eNOS. Donkey milk promoted development of the tumors. Therefore, donkey milk kefir appears to be more beneficial for treating breast cancer than donkey milk.