Atherosclerosis (AT) is a chronic immuno-inflammatory disease characterized by inflammatory mediators and immune activation in arterial wall. Although NF-B and micro RNAs are involved in the atherosclerotic lesions, the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of atherosclerosis with NFKB1-rs28362491, NFKBIA-rs696, pre-miRNA-146a-rs2910164 and pre-miRNA-499-rs3746444 polymorphisms as well as the analysis of their single and combined effects on its susceptibility in a Turkish population. We analysed the distribution of NFKB1-94 ins/del ATTG (rs28362491), NFKBIA (rs696), pre-miR-146a (rs2910164) and pre-miR-499 (rs3746444) genetic polymorphisms using PCR-RFLP assay in 150 atherosclerotic patients and 145 healthy controls in a Turkish population. The data revealed no significant differences in the distribution of the genotype and alleles of rs28362491 ,whereas AA genotype of rs696 lead to a higher risk for atherosclerotic patients. TT genotype and T allele of pre-miR-499 rs3746444 were found to be associated with atherosclerosis risk. In addition, significant differences were found between atherosclerotic patients and control subjects, concerning pre-miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphism. The subjects carrying the GG genotype and G allele of rs2910164 were found to have an increased risk against AT. The results of combined genotype analysis, showed no notable differences between the multiple comparisons of rs28362491-rs696 whereas rs28362491-rs2910164 ins/ins/GG is associated with increased AT risk. The combined genotypes of rs28362491/rs3746444 ins/ins/TT, revealed a significant protective effect on AT. These findings indicate that genetic polymorphisms of NFKB1A rs696, pre-miR-146a rs2910164 and pre-miR-499 rs3746444 may represent novel markers of AT susceptibility.