Sucralfate is widely used as a cytoprotective agent in patients with peptic ulcer and other intestinal mucosal damage. In this study, the effects of sucralfate and/or selective intestinal decontamination with gentamycin on bacterial translocation (BT) in rats with experimentally-induced mechanical jaundice were investigated. Seventy-five adult male Wistar albino rats were divided into five groups of 15 each. In all except a sham group, we performed ligation of the common bile duct (CBD) via a vertical laparatomy. After surgery, the rats in group 1 were treated with oral sucralfate (5 mg/kg per day); those in group 2 underwent oral gentamycin therapy (5 mg/kg per day) for 5 days. Group 3 rats were treated with sucralfate and gentamycin for 5 days subsequent to the operation. The rats in group 4 served as controls, and received only 0.9% saline solution. Group 5 was a sham group. After 5 days of surgery, all rats were killed; the mesenteric lymph nodes (MLN), liver, and a segment of terminal ileum were harvested aseptically. The collected tissues were cultured in McCaunkey medium and chocolate agar. For each specimen, the colony-forming units (CFU) were calculated and the percentage of viable translocated micro-organisms was counted. In all rats who had ligation of the CBD, high numbers of bacteria were demonstrated in the liver, MLN, and ileum. In the liver of rats with sucralfate and/ or gentamycin treatment, there was a marked reduction in CFU compared to the control group. Similarly, in the MLN measurements of CFU were higher in the control rats than the study groups. In both McCaunkey and chocolate media, the numbers of bacteria in control rats were significantly higher than in the study groups (P < 0.001). However, among the study groups themselves there was no significant difference in CFU in any of the specimens or culture media (P > 0.05). Experimentally-induced mechanical jaundice from ligation of the CBD causes significant BT in rats. Sucralfate and/or gentamycin may reduce the degree of BT from the bowel mucosa. We did not find any difference in protection from BT between sucralfate and gentamycin or both in rats with experimentally-induced mechanical jaundice.