We present a 27-year-old girl with short trunk stature, generalized rectangular platyspondyly and strike precocious calcification of costal cartilage. She had also brachydactyly, small nails, strabismus and delay of menarche. Her 16-year-old sister had also short trunk stature with severe kyphoscoliosis, hearing loss, brachydactyly, platyspondyly and mild precocious calcification of costal cartilages. Their 12-year-old brother had short trunk stature, kyphoscoliosis, brachydactyly, and platyspondyly but did not show precocious calcification of costal cartilage. The patients shared the following features: short trunk stature, brachydactyly, severe rectangular platyspondyly, broad and short femoral necks and hypoplasia of the ileum. In addition, the older sister had strike precocious calcification of costal cartilage while her sister and brother had severe kyphoscoliosis. Although short trunk stature and severe rectangular platyspondyly without significant epiphyseal or metaphyseal changes were in favor of Hobaek type brachyolmia, this diagnosis was not considered, both because, there were no specific radiological findings of this syndrome, such as elongated vertebral bodies extending beyond the pedicles laterally and all of the patients had brachydactyly which was not present in Hobaek type brachyolmia. The parents were healthy and first cousins signifying autosomal recessive inheritance. We considered that the patients couldbe affected by a new distinct autosomal recessive type brachyolmia or a new skeletal dysplasia. (C) 2003 Wiley-Liss, Inc.