Coronary artery calcification (CAC) is common in adults with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and progresses with time. However, data are limited for younger patients. We have previously reported CAC in eight of 53 children with CKD. After 2 years, CAC evaluation was repeated in 48 patients. The median CAC score (CACS) increased from 101.3 (1473.6 ± 1978.6, range 8.5-4332) to 1759.2 (2236.4 ± 2463.3, range 0-5858) Agatston units (AU). When the individual changes in CACS were evaluated one by one, we showed a mild decrease in two patients on hemodialysis (HD) and in one transplant (Tx) recipient, a moderate increase in one patient on HD, one on peritoneal dialysis (PD) and one Tx recipient, and a large increase in one HD patient. Also, CAC disappeared in one HD patient. All patients with no calcification at baseline remained calcification-free at follow-up. To obtain the individual cumulative exposure, we calculated time-averaged mean values, using the laboratory values from the beginning of dialysis to the first and second multidetector spiral computed tomography (MDCT) scans (baseline and final values, respectively). Final CACS was positively related to final calcium-phosphorus (Ca P) product, while CAC progression was inversely associated with final serum albumin level. This report is the first study with the largest number and the youngest cohort to document the natural history of coronary calcification. © IPNA 2008.