Origin and expansion of cattle domestication has always been an important field of research. Two main species of cattle, Bos taurus and Bos indicus have been domesticated separately in the Fertile Crescent and Indus Valley, respectively. Anatolia is accepted as a primary centre of taurine cattle domestication and it is accepted that considerable levels of Bos indicus (zebu) introgression have occurred at this centre. Molecular genetic studies on Anatolian breeds are especially important for obtaining information about cattle domestication, due to the geographic and cultural position of Anatolia. The genetic database of Anatolian cattle breeds has been established only recently and the conclusions of the Previous studies related to this topic need to be brought together. This review summarizes the autosomal data of these breeds acquired in recent years to show the gene flow from zebu cattle. The results of the studies on prolactin (PRL), insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), pituitary-specific transcription factor 1 (PIT-1), growth hormone (GE), growth hormone releasing hormone receptor (GHRH-R), diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase (DGAT1) and prion protein (PRNP) genes showed that Bos indicus associated alleles are present in South Anatolian Red (SAR) and East Anatolian Red (EAR) breeds with different levels. Characteristics like adaptation to climatic conditions, resistance to poor breeding, feeding conditions and parasitic diseases might be inherited from zebu to Anatolian cattle. A better understanding of genetic characteristics of Anatolian cattle breeds will not only contribute to the development of livestock breeding, but it will also contribute to the knowledge about the history of domestication.