Nation-building in Turkey through ritual pedagogy: the late Ottoman and early Turkish Republican era


HISTORY OF EDUCATION, 2019 (SSCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi)


In the modern world, festivals and commemorative ceremonies, national pledges, songs are all used to help students connect to each other and their wider society, particularly to the nation state and its ideals. The purpose of this article is to demonstrate how such rituals were used to different ends in terms of nation-building in the Republic of Turkey. The Western-oriented identity of the Turkish Republic began to take shape during the Ottoman era, and education played a very significant role in this. This paper first introduces the educational rituals of the Otoman state to set the scene for the main discussion, which centres on the development of new rituals in the Turkish Republic. Religious and sultanic rituals were replaced by new rituals which fostered Turkish identity and promoted secular nationhood. To this end, the most effective educational rituals - national festivals, flag-raising ceremonies and Turkey's student pledge - are examined in detail.