Blood-borne pathogens (BBP) represent remarkable occupational risks for healthcare workers (HCWs). Avoiding occupational blood exposure is a basis of prevention of the blood-borne pathogens (BBP). The effectiveness of the prevention strategies depends on the compliance and adherence to the program by healthcare-facility personnel. The aim of this study was to evaluate Turkish HCWs' compliance with Universal Precautions (UP). An analytic, cross-sectional, countrywide survey study was performed in hospital settings, (n = 5145) in 30 hospitals in 19 cities. In total, 1726 of the 5143 (33.6%) participants' behaviors were accepted as satisfactory for compliance with UP. The hepatitis knowledge levels of 2,650 (51.5%) participants were found to be satisfactory. In the multivariate analysis, working at a surgical site (P = 0.004), living in a rich region (P = .007) and the existence of a health office for HCWs (p = .000) were found to be contributor factors for HCWs' compliance with UP. Conversely, being a nurse (P = .000) and HBV/HCV carrier status (P = .039) were significant preventing predictors for HCWs' compliance with UP. Along with the other well-known predictive factors, regional economic status and a health office for HCWs are contributors for compliance with UP. (C) 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.