Thyroid function tests were carried out on 320 children with Down's syndrome aged between 5 d and 10 y. Thyroid function was normal in 230 patients (71.9%) and abnormal in 90 (28.1%). Six patients (1.8%) had primary congenital hypothyroidism, one patient had acquired hypothyroidism and two had transient hyperthyrotropinaemia of the newborn. Sixteen of the remaining 81 patients (25.3%) had compensated hypothyroidism with increased thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) levels (11-20 mU l(-1)). Their T-4 levels were found to be either normal or close to the lower limit of normal. These cases were started on thyroxine therapy. Sixty-five of the 81 patients had a mild compensated hypothyroidism with mild TSH elevation (6-10 mU l(-1)). None of the patients had hyperthyroidism. The antithyroid antibodies were positive in the acquired hypothyroidism case.