This study evaluated the relative ability of various combinations of copper sulfate with either boric acid or calcium-precipitating agent, N'-N-(1, 8-naphthalyl) hydroxylamine (NHA-Na), to inhibit fungal degradation and attack by Formosan subterranean termites (Coptotermes formosanus Shiraki). Wood specimens were treated with either 1%, 0.5%, or 0.1% concentrations of copper sulfate, boric acid, NHA-Na, copper sulfate + boric acid, or copper sulfate + NHA-Na mixtures. Treated specimens were subjected to laboratory decay-resistance tests by using petri dishes inoculated with the Basidiomycetes fungi Tyromyces palustris and Trametes versicolor for 12 weeks. Treated wood specimens were also subjected to termite-resistance tests under laboratory conditions. Increased efficacy of copper sulfate against the brown-rot fungus T. palustris was observed when either boric acid or NHA-Na was added. The most effective treatments against the fungi tested were NHA-Na only treatments at 1% and 0.5% concentration levels. Boric acid treatments were not able to protect wood against decay after leaching because of excessive leaching of boron. Similar results were obtained in termite-resistance tests in comparison with decay-resistance tests. These results indicate that the efficacy of the treatments in preventing fungal and termite attack is a function of the type of preservative. (C) 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.