Dasatinib is a potent second generation TKI, and it is widely used in patients with CML, both in the up-front setting and failure after imatinib. Lymphocytosis in cases receiving dasatinib therapy has been shown to be associated with pleural effusion (PE) and better outcome. Although patients who gather lymphocytosis during dasatinib have superior responses, there is only little data about the correlation between PE, response rates, and survival. In order to answer this question, the aim of our study was to determine the frequency of PE and lymphocytosis among our CML patients receiving second-line dasatinib, and to compare the responses and outcomes between patients with or without PE. There were 18 patients (44%) who developed PE, in a total of 41 patients, with a median time of 15 months. Lymphocytosis was observed in nine patients (9/41, 22%) with a median duration of 6.5 months of dasatinib treatment. There were fourteen patients with at least one comorbidity that may play a role in the generation of PE. The cumulative MMR and CCyR rates were greater in PE+ patients (p < 0.05). The PFS was significantly higher in PE+ group than PE-patients (p = 0.013), also the OS was higher among PE+ patients than PE- group (p = 0.042). In patients with a grade I/II PE, and durable responses under dasatinib, performing the management strategies for the recovery of effusion, together with continuing dasatinib can be a reasonable choice mainly in countries where third generation TKIs are not available. But alternative treatment strategies such as nilotinib or third generation TKIs can be chosen in patients with grade III/IV PE especially if the quality of life is severely affected. (C) 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.