Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the commonest primary malignant cancer of the liver in the world. This study was conducted to investigate the serum levels of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)in HCC patients and the relationship with tumor progression and known prognostic parameters. Fifty-four patients with HCC were investigated. Pretreatment HGF levels were employed the quantitative sandwich enzyme immunoassay technique (ELISA). Age and sex matched 20 healthy controls were included in the analysis. The median age of the patients was 60 years (range 36-77 years); where males consistituted of majority of the group (88.8 %). All of patients had cirrhotic history. Fourty-six percent (n = 25) of patients had Child-Pugh Score A, 30 % (n = 16) had Score B or C. All of the patients were treated with local therapies but none of them received sorafenib. The baseline serum HGF levels were significantly higher in patients with HCC than in the control group (p < 0.001). Male patients had higher serum HGF levels compared with female patients (p = 0.01). Serum HGF levels were significantly higher in the patients with elevated serum ALT levels than others with normal serum ALT levels (p = 0.05). Poor performance status (p < 0.001), viral etiology of cirrhosis (p = 0.03), larger tumor size (p = 0.01), lower serum hemogloblin levels (p = 0.03), and not be treated for HCC (p = 0.001) related to worse survival. However, serum HGF did not have significantly adverse effect on survival (p = 0.58). Despite serum HGF levels were found diagnostic value, serum HGF levels had no prognostic value in patients with HCC.