Further contributions to the early Miocene forest vegetation of the Galatian Volcanic Province, Turkey

BAYAM N. N. A. , Akkemik U. , POOLE I., Akarsu F.

PALAEONTOLOGIA ELECTRONICA, vol.21, no.3, 2018 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 21 Issue: 3
  • Publication Date: 2018
  • Doi Number: 10.26879/816


Ten new petrified forest sites have been discovered on the Galatian Volcanic Province (GVP). The silicified woods, preserved in the lower Miocene Hancili and Pazar formations, represent a diverse plant assemblage that grew across western and central GVP during the Burdigalian, ca. 20-17 Ma. The assemblage comprises a total of 233 petrified woods collected from the 10 sites in and around Ankara (Beypazari, camlidere, Kizilcahamam) and Bolu (Kibriscik). Taxonomic identifications of the fossil wood floras suggest four distinct vegetational associations can be recognized on the GVP: (1) swamp associations of Glyptostrobus Endlicher, Sequoia Endlicher and Taxodium Richard; (2) riparian forest comprising palms, Salix L., Liquidambar L. and Quercus L. section //ex; (3) mesic-xeric woodland comprising Acer L., Quercus L., Pinus L. and Juniperus L.; and (4) mixed coniferous-angiosperm forest comprising Picea A. Dietrich, Cedrus Trew., Pinus, Juniperus L. and Podocarpus L'Herit (ex Pers.) alongside. These associations support the idea that the landscape was varied and the climate warm and frost free.