Cobalt oxide (Co3O4) nanoparticles have applications in nanomedicine and nanotechnology; therefore, any possible adverse effects require thorough investigation. The present study investigated the effects of Co3O4 nanoparticles on four different cell lines: liver, HepG2 hepatocellular carcinoma cells; lung, A549 lung carcinoma cells; gastrointestinal, Caco-2 colorectal adenocarcinoma cells; and nervous system, SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. A difference was observed in cell sensitivity toward Co3O4 nanoparticles. Co3O4 nanoparticles were taken up by all the cell types. However, no cell death was observed in HepG2, Caco-2, or SH-SY5Y cells; only A549 cells showed cytotoxicity at relatively high exposure concentrations. Co3O4 nanoparticles did not induce DNA damage or apoptosis in the cell lines tested except in A549. Interestingly, Co3O4 nanoparticles induced cellular oxidative damage in all cell types except Caco-2, resulting in increased malondialdehyde and 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine levels and decreased glutathione levels. According to our results, it could be indicated that high concentrations of Co3O4 nanoparticles affected the pulmonary system but were unlikely to affect the liver, nervous system, or gastrointestinal system. Co3O4 nanoparticles might be safely used for industrial, commercial, and nanomedical applications if dose rates are adjusted depending on the route of exposure. However, further in vivo and in vitro studies are required to confirm the safety of Co3O4 nanoparticles.