© 2017 Surgical Neurology International | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow.Background: Endocan has been shown to be a marker for several cancers and may show degree of malignancy. The aim of this study is to assess serum levels of endocan before and after surgery on low-grade gliomas (LGGs). Methods: Endocan was assayed by commercially available enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) kits in a total of 19 patients and 12 controls. Serial serum samples were obtained before and after surgery (1st day, 1st week, and 1st month of surgery). Control samples were collected from cord blood during cesarean section. The results were compared with control brain tissues. Results: Controls showed significantly lower serum endocan levels compared to before and after surgery (P < 0.05). There is a trend of increase in mean serum levels from before surgery and during the very early period after surgery (during first week); however, in the first month, mean serum levels became lower. Conclusion: Endocan, a vital molecule for angiogenesis, is highly expressed before and after surgery in LGGs, but long-term data is needed. Furthermore, future studies should include high-grade gliomas to discuss whether endocan is associated with recurrence and response to treatment.