Objectives: Triggering Receptor Expressed on Myeloid cells-1 (TREM-1) is a monocyte and neutrophil receptor functioning in innate immunity. TREM-1 activity has been studied in various autoimmune diseases such as RA and SLE but there is no data in autoinflammatory pathologies. We studied soluble TREM-1 (sTREM-1) activity in Familial Mediterranean Fever (FMF) cases to evaluate the clinical role of TREM-1 in amyloidosis. Methods: The study includes 62 patients with FMF (42 with amyloidosis) who are regular attendees of a tertiary center for autoinflammatory diseases. For control purposes, 5 patients with AA amyloidosis secondary to other inflammatory diseases, and 20 healthy individuals were also included. Soluble TREM-1 levels were measured using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). All FMF patients were in an attack-free period during the collection of the blood samples.Results: Soluble TREM-1 levels were found to be significantly higher in the FMF amyloidosis group compared to FMF without amyloidosis group and healthy controls (p = .001 and 0.002). Nevertheless, this difference between sTREM-1 levels was not found among FMF amyloidosis and other AA amyloidosis groups (p = .447) as well as between only FMF patients and healthy controls (p = .532). Soluble TREM-1 levels were found in correlation with creatinine and CRP in the FMF patient group regardless of their amyloidosis diagnosis (r = 0.314, p = .013; r = 0.846, p < .001).Conclusion: TREM-1 seems to be related to renal function rather than disease activity in FMF. Its role as an early diagnostic marker of amyloidosis in FMF complicated with AA amyloidosis should be tested in larger patient groups.