© 2020 CardioFront LLC. All rights reserved.Background: Cryoballoon based catheter ablation (CB-CA) is an established therapy for treatment of symptomatic atrial fibrillation (AF). However, data about AF ablation using the CB in the diabetic population is sparse. The aim of this single center retrospective study is to evaluate the safety and efficacy of CB ablation in patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) as compared to patients without DM. Methods and results: Between July 2015 and December 2017, 397 consecutive patients underwent CB-CA for AF. Forty-eight consecutive patients with DM (DM group, study group) were compared with propensity score-matched patients without DM (n=48, control group). All patients underwent pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) using the second-generation CB (CB2). The mean age in the DM group was 66.9±9.5 years and 69.5±8.8 in the non-DM group (p=0.18). During a follow-up of 12.7±5.1 months, single procedure success rate for the DM and the non-DM group was 68.7% and 70.8%, respectively (p=0.82). The most common complication was transient phrenic nerve palsy (4 DM group vs. 0 non-DM group, p=0.04). No severe complication such as procedure related deaths, atrio-esophageal fistula or cerebrovascular embolic events occurred. Conclusions: Our data strengthen the value of CB2 based ablation for the treatment of AF as an effective and safe procedure in DM patients, with similar success rates when compared with a non-DM population.