Rare earth element (REE) resources of Turkey: An overview of their characteristics and origin


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ÖZTÜRK H. , HANİLÇİ N. , Altuncu S., KASAPÇI C.

BULLETIN OF THE MINERAL RESEARCH AND EXPLORATION, cilt.159, ss.129-143, 2019 (ESCI İndekslerine Giren Dergi) identifier identifier

  • Cilt numarası: 159
  • Basım Tarihi: 2019
  • Doi Numarası: 10.19111/bulletinofmre.471205
  • Dergi Adı: BULLETIN OF THE MINERAL RESEARCH AND EXPLORATION
  • Sayfa Sayıları: ss.129-143

Özet

The Rare Earth Elements (REE) deposits and mineralization of Turkey can be divided into four types based on their geological setting and origin. First are deposits associated with carbonatite-alkaline magmatic rocks, rich in Light Rare Earth Elements (LREE). The bast known examples are the Kizilcaoren (Eskisehir) and Kuluncak (Malatya) deposits with TREE grades of 2.9% and 0.7% respectively, and typical enrichment of La-Ce. Lower grade REE mineralization at Keban (0.05% TREE) and Divrigi (0.13% TREE) is associated with abundant fluorite and all four occurrences show similar ranges for homogenization temperatures and salinities for fluid inclusions in fluorite and REE profiles. The second type are Triassic shales and the bauxites formed from them in the Bolkardagi region. Enrichment of Heavy REE (HREE) is typical and TREE grades are about 0.15% in bauxites and its protolith. These occurrences are geochemically similar to "ion adsorption type" deposits associated with lateritic clay on the weathered granitic rocks of China. Third is the placer type, represented by the canakli (Burdur) deposit which is enriched in U, Th and HREE and heavy minerals such as; magnetite, zircon and rutile and has an average grade of about 0.08% TREE. The fourth potential source of REE is phosphorites. These rocks host the world's largest resources elsewhere, however the Cretaceous Mazidag deposits in Turkey are very low grade (40ppm TREE) and clearly uneconomic. Consideration of the environmental and health issues associated with exploitation and processing of REE has identified the more favorable outcomes associated with exploitation of the ion adsorption type of deposits and justification for further evaluation of the resources and processing technologies that would enable exploitation of REE-enriched bauxites in the Bolkardagi region.