Aim This study aimed to culturally adapt and validate the Turkish version of the Short Musculoskeletal Function Assessment Questionnaire (SMFA-TR) which primarily assesses the functional status of patients. Methods The translation and cross-cultural adaptation of SMFA to Turkish was made by the standardized procedure and tested for clinimetric quality. The following analyses were made to evaluate clinimetric quality of the SMFA-TR: reliability with factor analysis and Chronbach's alpha(construct validity), correlations between SMFA-TR and Short Form (SF)-36 (concurrent validity), test-retest reliability (intraclass correlation analyses), floor and ceiling effects. The questionnaire was applied to 166 patients with musculoskeletal problems. All patients filled in the SMFA-TR and the validated Turkish SF-36 questionnaire. Forty-two patients returned to complete the same questionnaires at 10 days. Results Factor analysis revealed a 4-factor structure of the SMFA-TR. Cronbach's alpha values were over 0.88 for both original subscales (dysfunction and bother) of the SMFA. Internal consistency (0.88-0.94) and test-retest reliability coefficients (0.90-0.98) were high for both subscales. Turkish SF-36 questionnaire conventional subscales showed significant correlations with SMFA-TR subscales. No floor or ceiling effects were found. Conclusion The Turkish version of the SMFA was found to be reliable and valid for Turkish-speaking patients with musculoskeletal injuries or disorders.