Carbonate weathering and connate seawater influencing karst groundwaters in the Gevas-Gurpinar-Guzelsu basins, Turkey

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Ozler H. M.

ENVIRONMENTAL EARTH SCIENCES, vol.61, no.2, pp.323-340, 2010 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 61 Issue: 2
  • Publication Date: 2010
  • Doi Number: 10.1007/s12665-009-0345-5
  • Page Numbers: pp.323-340


There are 59 springs at the Gevas-GurpA +/- nar-Guzelsu basins, 38 of these springs emerge from the fractured karst aquifers (recrystallized limestone and travertine) and 21 emerge from the Yuksekova ophiolites, KA +/- rkge double dagger it formation and alluvium. The groundwater samples collected from 38 out of the total of 59 springs, two streams, one lake and 12 wells were analyzed physico-chemically in the year 2002. EC and TDS values of groundwater increased from the marble (high altitude) to the ophiolites and alluvium (toward Lake Van) as a result of carbonate dissolution and connate seawater. Five chemical types of groundwater are identified: Ca-Mg-HCO(3), Mg-Ca-HCO(3), Mg-Na-HCO(3), Na-Ca-HCO(3) and Mg-Ca-Na-HCO(3). The calculations and hydrochemical interpretations show that the high concentrations of Ca(2+), Mg(2+) and HCO(3) (-) as predominant ions in the waters are mainly attributed to carbonate rocks and high pCO(2) in soil. Most of the karst springs are oversaturated in calcite, aragonite and dolomite and undersaturated in gypsum, halite and anhydrite. The water-rock interaction processes that singly or in combination influence the chemical composition of each water type include dissolution of carbonate (calcite and dolomite), calcite precipitation, cation exchange and freshening of connate seawater. These processes contribute considerably to the concentration of major ions in the groundwater. Stable isotope contents of the groundwater suggest mainly direct integrative recharge.