Background: Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is mainly caused by metabolic factors, vascular inflammation, and endothelial dysfunction. We aimed to evaluate the relationship of DR with inflammatory and biochemical alterations in type 2 diabetics. Methods: A total of 89 diabetic patients with retinopathy [(DR (+) (n=30)], without retinopathy [(DR (-) (n=32)], and 27 control subjects were involved in the study. Demographic properties, biochemical values, ophtalmologic evaluation, C-reactive protein (CRP), and pentraxin-3 (PTX-3) levels were recorded. Results: There was significant difference between controls, DR (-) and DR (+) groups with regard to serum PTX-3 levels. Control group had the lowest and DR (+) group revealed the highest PTX-3 levels. Severity of retinopathy was not related with CRP or PTX-3 levels. Duration of diabetes was longer, systolic blood pressure (SBP) and urinary albumin-creatinine ratio (UACR) were significantly higher in DR (+) subjects than DR (-) subjects. Multivariate analysis revealed that PTX-3 level and SBP were the variables that had a significant effect on DR (P=0.002, OR=1.61, and P=0.021, OR=1.06, respectively). Conclusions: Plasma PTX-3 levels may be a valuable predictor of DR-like factors such as duration of diabetes, hypertension, and UACR. Although inflammation has an important role in DR, we think that biomarkers reflecting inflammation is not sufficient to predict development and progression of DR; but follow up with PTX-3 levels along with ophthalmological evaluation may be useful. A single determination may not reflect the variations over time, so repeat measures may provide knowledge if PTX-3 is just a biomarker or has a causal role.