The Urinary Bladder: Structure, Functions and Clinical Aspects


Cengiz M. , Bayoğlu B.

Genetic Polymorphisms of Antioxidant Metabolizing Enzymes in Bladder Cancer, NICOLINE J. MIKKELSEN, Editör, NOVA Publications , New-York, ss.107-133, 2020

  • Basım Tarihi: 2020
  • Yayın Evi: NOVA Publications
  • Basıldığı Şehir: New-York
  • Sayfa Sayısı: ss.107-133
  • Editörler: NICOLINE J. MIKKELSEN, Editör

Özet

ABSTRACT

In the developed countries bladder cancer is the ninth most

frequently seen cancer and it affects men more frequently than women.

The risk factors of bladder cancer are tobacco smoke, environmental

pollutants, workplace conditions, and life style. The differences in the

metabolism of these chemicals have recently been suggested as modifiers

of individual susceptibility to environmentally induced bladder cancer.

Recent studies indicated antioxidant system imbalance caused oxidative

stress in the formation and development of this disease. These

carcinogens activate the cytochrome p450 systems and cause DNA

damage which starts tumor initiation. Some phase II enzymes play

effective role for the protection from cancer progression such as GST,GPx, soluble Sulphotrasferases (SULT), and epoxide hydrolases.

Glutathione S transferases detoxify chemical carcinogens. GST T1 and

GST1 null genotype polymorphism have an increased role in the

susceptibility of bladder cancer progression both in Caucasian and Asian

populations. GPx polymorphism was also found to be associated with

developing bladder cancer. Sulfotransferases (SULT) are enzymes

affecting catalyzation of carcinogenic compunds. It has been found that

Sult1A1 polymorphism took place at reduced risk of bladder cancer.

Bladder cancer is also found to be related to exposure of aromatic

amines after detoxification by NAT2 (N acetyl transferase) slow

acetylation form of the enzyme. This section reviews new basic

developments on the role of the polymorphisms in Glutathione gene

family enzyme transferases (GST), (GR), GPx, Soluble sulfotransferases

(SULT), carcinogen metabolizing enzymes N-acetyltransferase (NAT),

with significance on the susceptibility to urinary bladder cancer.