PLS-DA Model for the Evaluation of Attention Deficit and Hyperactivity Disorder in Children and Adolescents through Blood Serum FTIR Spectra

ÖĞRÜÇ ILDIZ G., Karadag A., Kaygisiz E., Fausto R.

MOLECULES, vol.26, no.11, 2021 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 26 Issue: 11
  • Publication Date: 2021
  • Doi Number: 10.3390/molecules26113400
  • Title of Journal : MOLECULES


Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common neurodevelopmental disorders of childhood. It affects similar to 10% of the world's population of children, and about 30-50% of those diagnosed in childhood continue to show ADHD symptoms later, with 2-5% of adults having the condition. Current diagnosis of ADHD is based on the clinical evaluation of the patient, and on interviews performed by clinicians with parents and teachers of the children, which, together with the fact that it shares common symptoms and frequent comorbidities with other neurodevelopmental disorders, makes the accurate and timely diagnosis of the disorder a difficult task. Despite the large effort to identify reliable biomarkers that can be used in a clinical environment to support clinical diagnosis, this goal has never been achieved hitherto. In the present study, infrared spectroscopy was used together with multivariate statistical methods (hierarchical clustering and partial least-squares discriminant analysis) to develop a model based on the spectra of blood serum samples that is able to distinguish ADHD patients from healthy individuals. The developed model used an approach where the whole infrared spectrum (in the 3700-900 cm(-1) range) was taken as a holistic imprint of the biochemical blood serum environment (spectroscopic biomarker), overcoming the need for the search of any particular chemical substance associated with the disorder (molecular biomarker). The developed model is based on a sensitive and reliable technique, which is cheap and fast, thus appearing promising to use as a complementary diagnostic tool in the clinical environment.