Protein carbonyl groups result from free radical-induced protein oxidation; their level in tissues and plasma is a relatively stable marker of oxidative damage. Protein carbonyl contents in erythrocyte membranes were investigated in the type 2 diabetic patients with good (n = 16) and poor (n = 30) glycemic control. Diabetic patients were classified as patients with (n = 20) and without (n = 26) angiopathy. Protein carbonyl content was evaluated using the 2,4-dinitro-phenyl-hydrazine method. Protein carbonyl content and GHb levels were significantly higher in both patients with poor and good glycemic control than in control subjects (p < 0.001 in each case). There was a significant difference in protein carbonyl content between patients with poor and good glycemic control (p < 0.001). Diabetic patients with angiopathy had significantly higher protein carbonyl content and GHb levels than the diabetic patients without angiopathy (p < 0.001). These results suggest that impaired glycemic control is connected to protein oxidation, and protein oxidation may be related to underlying metabolic abnormalities and complications of diabetes.