Clinical and immunological features of 44 common variable immunodeficiency patients: the experience of a single center in Turkey


Nepesov S., Aygun F., Firtina S., ÇOKUĞRAŞ H. C. , Camcioglu Y.

Allergologia et Immunopathologia, vol.48, no.6, pp.675-685, 2020 (Journal Indexed in SCI) identifier identifier identifier

  • Publication Type: Article / Article
  • Volume: 48 Issue: 6
  • Publication Date: 2020
  • Doi Number: 10.1016/j.aller.2019.12.008
  • Title of Journal : Allergologia et Immunopathologia
  • Page Numbers: pp.675-685
  • Keywords: Common variable immunodeficiency, Hypogammaglobulinemia, Immunoglobulin therapy, PEDIATRIC-PATIENTS, INTRAVENOUS IMMUNOGLOBULIN, MANAGEMENT, DIAGNOSIS, LYMPHOMA, DISEASE

Abstract

© 2020 SEICAPIntroduction and objectives: Common variable immunodeficiency (CVID) is one of the most prevalent forms of primary immunodeficiency characterized by hypogammaglobinemia. Its heterogeneous clinical features include recurrent respiratory tract infections and other complications such as gastrointestinal, autoimmunity, and lymphoproliferative disorders. The aim of this article is to evaluate the general characteristics of CVID patients. Materials and methods: Clinical and immunological features of 44 CVID patients were evaluated retrospectively with long-term follow-up. Patients who participated in the study were diagnosed according to the criteria of the European Society for Immunodeficiency Diseases (ESID). Results: The median age at onset of symptoms was 2.75 years (range 6 months to 17 years), and the median age at diagnosis was 7.75 years (range 4–20 years). The average delay in diagnosis was 4.6 years (range 1–14 years). Positive family history was 18.2%. Before treatment, patients’ median total serum IgG was 271.5 mg/dL, median IgA was 7.5 mg/dL, and median IgM was 21 mg/dL. Infections were the most common clinical manifestation, and 63.6% of patients presented with sinopulmonary infection as the first manifestation. Bronchiectasis developed in 23 CVID subjects, while bronchiectasis was detected prior to CVID diagnosis in eight patients. All patients received immunoglobulin replacement therapy, and one patient died because of granulomatous lymphocytic interstitial lung disease (GLILD). Conclusions: CVID is a heterogeneous group of immunologic disorders with unknown etiology. There are significant differences in the clinical presentation and prevalence of CVID-related complications among countries. Local guidelines for diagnosis and clinical follow-up are needed.