The aim of this study was to adjust dry weight by short-term blood volume monitoring (BVM)-guided ultrafiltration and evaluate the effects of optimizing dry weight on blood pressure (BP) control and intradialytic symptoms (IDS) in a group of hypertensive hemodialysis (HD) patients. The study was performed in four sequential phases, each of which lasted for 1 week, on nine hypertensive HD patients (six girls, age 16.9 +/- 3.1 years). In phase I, patients were observed by BVM. In phase II, BVM was used to guide ultrafiltration to adjust dry weight. Antihypertensive drugs were gradually tapered or withheld in phase III, when the patients were hypotensive and/or their IDS increased. In phase IV, this particular weight was maintained without any intervention. Pre- and post-HD body weight, pre-HD, post-HD, 30 min after HD casual BP values, and IDS in each HD session were recorded. The BP was also assessed by 44-h ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM), which is an ideal method to determine BP changes throughout the interdialytic period at the beginning of phase I and at the end of phase IV. There was a decrease in mean dry weight, all casual systolic BPs, and systolic/diastolic ABPM at the end of the study (all p a parts per thousand currency signaEuro parts per thousand 0.05). Antihypertensive drugs were stopped in five patients and reduced in two during phase III of the study. The IDS was more frequent (36%) in phase IV than in phase I (16%); however, this increase did not reach statistical significance. The results of this study suggest that short-term BVM guided-ultrafiltration may be a useful tool to diagnose volume overload and to adjust dry weight and, consequently, to achieve a better control of BP in pediatric HD patients.