The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of rosiglitazone treatment on islet ghrelin and insulin gene expressions in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Animals were divided into four groups. 1. Intact controls. 2. Rosiglitazone-treated controls. 3. STZ-induced diabetes. 4. Rosiglitazone-treated diabetes, Rosiglitazone was given for 7 days at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight. Ghrelin and insulin gene expressions were investigated by immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization. There was no statistically significant difference in body weight between STZ-induced diabetic rats and rosiglitazone-treated diabetic rats during the experimental period. Furthermore, there were no significant differences in blood glucose levels and insulin immunoreactive cell numbers between STZ-induced diabetic rats and rosiglitazone-treated diabetic rats. There was a tendency towards a reduction of ghrelin gene expression in diabetic animals compared with intact controls. We found, in addition, that ghrelin immunoreactive and ghrelin mRNA expressing cells were frequent in the epithelial lining of the ducts suggesting ductal epithelium might be the source of the regenerating islet ghrelin cells, as is known for other islet cells. The results show that short-term rosiglitazone pretreatment had no significant effect on ghrelin and insulin gene expressions.